Introduction Luxembourg

Background: Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.

Geography Luxembourg
Location: Western Europe, between France and Germany
Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 6 10 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 2,586 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area – comparative: slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries: total: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Land use: arable land: 23.28%
permanent crops: 0.4%
other: 76.32% (includes Belgium) (2001)
Irrigated land: 40 sq km (includes Belgium) (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: NA
Environment – current issues: air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
Environment – international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography – note: landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world
People Luxembourg
Population: 468,571 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.9% (male 45,768/female 42,980)
15-64 years: 66.5% (male 157,453/female 153,927)
65 years and over: 14.6% (male 27,573/female 40,870) (2005 est.)
Median age: total: 38.51 years
male: 37.56 years
female: 39.48 years (2005 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.25% (2005 est.)
Birth rate: 12.06 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate: 8.41 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate: 8.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.81 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.79 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.74 years
male: 75.45 years
female: 82.24 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 500 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg
Ethnic groups: Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kosovo) and European (guest and resident workers)
Religions: 87% Roman Catholic, 13% Protestants, Jews, and Muslims (2000)
Languages: Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)
Government Luxembourg
Country name: conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: Luxembourg
Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
Independence: 1839 (from the Netherlands)
National holiday: National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June
Constitution: 17 October 1868; occasional revisions
Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 1 January 1995) and Vice Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 July 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
note: government coalition – CSV and LSAP
Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 13 June 2004 (next to be held by June 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party – CSV 36.1%, LSAP 23.4%, DP 16.1%, Green Party 11.6%, ADR 10%; seats by party – CSV 24, LSAP 14, DP 10, Green Party 7, ADR 5
note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister
Judicial branch: judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor’s Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
Political parties and leaders: Action Committee for Democracy and Justice or ADR [Gast GIBERYEN]; Christian Social People’s Party or CSV (known also as Christian Social Party or PCS) [Francois BILTGEN]; Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers’ Party or LSAP [Alex BODRY]; Marxist and Reformed Communist Party dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left) [no formal leadership]; other minor parties
Political pressure groups and leaders: ABBL (bankers’ association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); LCGP (center-right trade union); OGBL (center-left trade union)
International organization participation: ACCT, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Arlette CONZEMIUS-PACCOURD
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general: New York and San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Peter TERPELUK, Jr.
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone: [352] 46 01 23
FAX: [352] 46 14 01
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France
Economy Luxembourg
Economy – overview: This stable, high-income economy – in between France, Belgium, and Germany – features solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 22% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign-owned and have extensive foreign dealings. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for more than 30% of its labor force. Although Luxembourg, like all EU members, has suffered from the global economic slump, the country enjoys an extraordinarily high standard of living.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $27.27 billion (2004 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 2.3% (2004 est.)
GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $58,900 (2004 est.)
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 0.5%
industry: 16.3%
services: 83.1% (2004 est.)
Labor force: 293,700 (of whom 105,000 are foreign cross-border workers commuting primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany) (2004 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 13%, services 86% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.5% (December, 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 19.8% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget: revenues: $13.74 billion
expenditures: $14.49 billion, including capital expenditures of $760 million (2004 est.)
Agriculture – products: barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes; livestock products
Industries: banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, information technology, tourism and banking
Industrial production growth rate: 2.9% (2004 est.)
Electricity – production: 2.511 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity – production by source: fossil fuel: 57.3%
hydro: 25.2%
nuclear: 0%
other: 17.5% (2001)
Electricity – consumption: 5.735 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity – exports: 2.9 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity – imports: 6.3 billion kWh (2002)
Oil – production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil – consumption: 50,650 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil – exports: 634 bbl/day (2001)
Oil – imports: 50,700 bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas – production: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas – consumption: 865 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas – exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas – imports: 867 million cu m (2001 est.)
Exports: $13.4 billion f.o.b. (2003)
Exports – commodities: machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
Exports – partners: Germany 22.1%, France 20.1%, Belgium 10.2%, UK 8.4%, Italy 7.3%, Spain 5.9%, Netherlands 4.3% (2004)
Imports: $16.3 billion c.i.f. (2003)
Imports – commodities: minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
Imports – partners: Belgium 29.8%, Germany 22.6%, China 12.6%, France 12%, Netherlands 4.2% (2004)
Debt – external: $NA
Economic aid – donor: ODA, $147 million (2002)
Currency (code): euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Currency code: EUR
Exchange rates: euros per US dollar – 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Communications Luxembourg
Telephones – main lines in use: 355,400 (2002)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 473,000 (2002)
Telephone system: general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; buried cable
international: country code – 352; 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable (Europe to North America)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
Radios: 285,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 5 (1999)
Televisions: 285,000 (1998 est.)
Internet country code: .lu
Internet hosts: 28,214 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (2000)
Internet users: 165,000 (2002)
Transportation Luxembourg
Railways: total: 274 km
standard gauge: 274 km 1.435-m gauge (242 km electrified) (2004)
Highways: total: 5,210 km
paved: 5,210 km (including 126 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (2002)
Waterways: 37 km (on Moselle River) (2003)
Pipelines: gas 155 km (2004)
Ports and harbors: Mertert
Merchant marine: total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 652,454 GRT/805,101 DWT
by type: chemical tanker 16, container 6, liquefied gas 2, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 6, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 40 (Belgium 12, Finland 3, France 8, Germany 10, Netherlands 4, United States 3) (2005)
Airports: 2 (2004 est.)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports – with unpaved runways: total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Heliports: 1 (2004 est.)
Military Luxembourg
Military branches: Army
Military service age and obligation: a 1967 law made the Army an all-volunteer force; 17 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers under 18 are not deployed into combat or with peacekeeping missions (2004)
Manpower available for military service: males age 17-49: 110,867 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 17-49: 90,279 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males: 2,775 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures – dollar figure: $231.6 million (2003)
Military expenditures – percent of GDP: 0.9% (2003)
Transnational Issues Luxembourg
Disputes – international: none

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CIA World Factsbook;