Introduction Andorra

Background: For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

Geography Andorra
Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 468 sq km
land: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area – comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: total: 120.3 km
border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Land use: arable land: 2.22%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.78% (2001)
Irrigated land: NA sq km
Natural hazards: avalanches
Environment – current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
Environment – international agreements: party to: Hazardous Wastes
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography – note: landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees
People Andorra
Population: 70,549 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.8% (male 5,471/female 4,995)
15-64 years: 71.5% (male 26,463/female 23,977)
65 years and over: 13.7% (male 4,780/female 4,863) (2005 est.)
Median age: total: 40.34 years
male: 40.63 years
female: 40.02 years (2005 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.95% (2005 est.)
Birth rate: 9 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate: 6.07 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate: 6.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.05 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 83.51 years
male: 80.6 years
female: 86.6 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.29 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: NA%
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS – deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran
Ethnic groups: Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)
Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)
Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Literacy: definition: NA
total population: 100%
male: NA%
female: NA%
Government Andorra
Country name: conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d’Andorra
local short form: Andorra
Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces’ representatives
Capital: Andorra la Vella
Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular – parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
Independence: 1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel)
National holiday: Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
Constitution: Andorra’s first written constitution was drafted in 1991, approved by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 4 May 1993
Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995), represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002); Spanish Coprince Bishop Joan Enric VIVES i SICILIA (since 12 May 2003), represented by Nemesi MARQUES i OSTE (since NA)
head of government: Executive Council President Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA (since 27 May 2005)
cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president
elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 4 March 2001 (next to be held April-May 2005)
election results: Marc FORNE MOLNE elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote – NA%
Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held March-April 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party – PLA 41.2%, PS 38.1%, CDA 11%, other 9.7%; seats by party – PLA 14, PS 12, CDA 2
Judicial branch: Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d’Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional
Political parties and leaders: Andorran Democratic Center Party or CDA (formerly Democratic Party or PD) [leader NA]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA (formerly Liberal Union or UL) [Albert PINTAT]; Social Democratic Party or PS (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND) [Mariona GONZALEZ REOLIT] Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: CE, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires Jelena V. PIA-COMELLA
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General’s office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (93) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (93) 280-6175
Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem
Economy Andorra
Economy – overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra’s tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra’s duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra’s comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its “tax haven” status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited – only 2% of the land is arable – and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.9 billion (2003 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 2% (2003 est.)
GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $26,800 (2003 est.)
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Labor force: 33,000 (2001 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 78% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: 0% (1996 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (2000)
Budget: revenues: $385 million
expenditures: $342 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1997)
Agriculture – products: small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep
Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity – production: NA kWh
Electricity – production by source: NA
Electricity – consumption: NA kWh
Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2002)
Electricity – imports: NA kWh; note – most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower
Exports: $58 million f.o.b. (1998)
Exports – commodities: tobacco products, furniture
Exports – partners: Spain 58%, France 34% (2000)
Imports: $1.077 billion (1998)
Imports – commodities: consumer goods, food, electricity
Imports – partners: Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (2000)
Debt – external: $NA
Economic aid – recipient: none
Currency (code): euro (EUR)
Currency code: EUR
Exchange rates: euros per US dollar – 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Communications Andorra
Telephones – main lines in use: 35,000 (2001)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 23,500 (2001)
Telephone system: general assessment: NA
domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
international: country code – 376; landline circuits to France and Spain
Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 16,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)
Televisions: 27,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .ad
Internet hosts: 4,144 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
Internet users: 24,500 (2001)
Transportation Andorra
Highways: total: 269 km
paved: 198 km
unpaved: 71 km
Merchant marine: registered in other countries: 1
Airports: none (2004 est.)
Military Andorra
Military branches: no regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra
Military – note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
Transnational Issues Andorra
Disputes – international: none
This page was last updated on 1 November, 2005

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